melamine powder in milk

[4][58] Sanlu, whose products sell at half the price of equivalents on the market,[77] recorded the highest levels of contamination among all the samples tested, at 2,563 mg/kg or parts per million ("ppm"). [162] One citizen voiced concern that President Ma Ying-jeou's promise for closer ties with China would bring in more tainted products to Taiwan. [148] A total of nine cases were filed against Sanlu in Shijiazhuang. Wen Jiabao apologised while visiting victims in hospitals. The Beijing Lawyers' Association, a part of the Communist Party apparatus, asked its members "to put faith in the party and government". Working groups were established in nearly every single province in order to set up new food testing centres and replace outdated equipment. He claims he was told by the official to "follow the arrangements set out by the government", and was further threatened: "If this suggestion is disobeyed, the lawyer and the firm will be dealt with. A researcher at the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention said that any amount exceeding 1 ppm would give reason to suspect its presence was intentional. [146] Chang said that Henan's justice department had ordered 14 Henan lawyers to stop helping the kidney stone victims, saying it had become a political issue. [66], The Intermediate People's Court in Shijiazhuang sentenced Zhang Yujun and Geng Jinping to death, and Tian Wenhua to life in prison, on 22 January 2009. They gave notice to all supermarkets, shops, and all city, town and village-level vendors to urgently remove and seal up all powdered milk and liquid milk made before 14 September, pending further testing. The Beijing Youth Daily reported that farmers had been forced to slaughter tens of thousands of chickens. They urged member states to base import restrictions on scientific risk assessments, and to use official WTO notification mechanisms. [56], Tian Wenhua, Chairwoman and general manager of Sanlu and Secretary of the Sanlu Communist Party chapter was stripped of her party and functional posts during an extraordinary meeting of the Hebei provincial standing committee of the CCP;[57] four Shijiazhuang officials, including vice mayor in charge of food and agriculture, Zhang Fawang, were reportedly removed from office. The value of the company plunged as a result of the scandal. [93], Mengniu, milk supplier to Starbucks, was replaced by Vitasoy when the coffee retailer eschewed milk in favour of soya milk in its China operations. In such get-rich-quick societies, there is a huge temptation to tamper with food, particularly when margins are low. More recently melamine has been found to be contaminating human foods, in particular milk powder, milk and yoghurt and was reported to have been used in 22 brands of infant formula. It has also been employed as a non-protein nitrogen, appearing in soy meal, corn gluten meal and cottonseed meal used in cattle feed. VWD-3400RS UV-VIS detector (all from Dionex), New Nanoantibodies Against SARS-CoV-2 Developed in a Llama, Mitochondria Repair Gene Could be the Secret to the Fountain of Youth, Research Suggests Biosimilar SARS-CoV-2-Like Particles Extremely Sensitive to Temperature, The Relationship Between COVID-19 and Sunlight, The Impact of Design Innovations in Multi-Parameter Monitoring, Keeping Drinking Water Safe: Precise, Reliable Determination of ‘Forever Chemicals’ Using Advanced Technology, Optimizing Your Operation During Challenging Times, New Mass Spectrometry Technology Simplifies Solid Sample Analysis, Tackling Polymer, Biopolymer, and Electronics Recycling with Innovative Testing & Analysis and Best Practices, A Fast Method for Determination of Melamine in Liquid Milk and Milk Powder by HPLC With UV Detection. This chemical, shown in Figure 1, can form an insoluble compound in the body, causing kidney stones … More than 53,000 infants have been diagnosed with severe traumas such as … [82], On 30 September, the AQSIQ announced test results of a further 265 batches of powdered milk produced by 154 different companies prior to 14 September, where it found 31 batches produced by 20 domestic dairy companies were tainted with melamine. What we are trying to do is to ensure no such event happens in future by punishing those leaders as well as enterprises responsible. [202] One analyst, Willy Lam, a Senior Fellow at The Jamestown Foundation, indicated that CCP's pervasive control over political and economic resources has resulted in the absence of meaningful systematic checks and balances. Scott Lefferts. Baker (Phillipsburg, NJ). Free media in China could compensate for the underdeveloped rule of law, and be important in keeping companies and regulators honest. At a pH higher than 5.0, melamine becomes deprotonated and is also poorly retained. Under pressure, melamine releases water, which could make the plastic unstable if it is not removed. The EFSA said children with a mean consumption of products such as milk toffee, biscuits and chocolate containing contaminated powdered milk would not be at risk, and adults would not be at risk even in the worst-case scenarios. [103][104] Nestlé's factory in Heilongjiang was also implicated: the Taiwanese Department of Health forced the delisting of six Neslac and KLIM products on 2 October for containing minute traces of melamine, although the minister said they did not pose a significant health risk. [195], Joseph Sternberg of the Wall Street Journal said that Beijing's failures of food-safety act are "much more pernicious, and disgraceful, than at first it appears ... [not only has this] milk poisoned thousands of infants with melamine, it also poisons the society at large with fear". A shopper in Shanghai examines milk powder in 2008. [143], Poorer consumers reliant on local infant formula, which was approximately half the price of imported brands, had been left without alternatives to feed their children. [48][49] After the memo began circulating on the internet, Baidu denounced, in a communiqué on 13 September 2008, the approaches by said agency on several occasions, saying the proposal was firmly rejected, as it violated their corporate principles of unbiased and transparent reporting. [54] While this was happening, Sanlu was honoured in a national award campaign called "30 Years: Brands that Have Changed the Lives of Chinese". Introduced into milk, it can help conceal fraudulent dilution with water. The use of melamine in food production is not approved by WHO or national authorities.[9]. [217] The Taiwanese Department of Health said that six batches of protein powder from Jilin and Dalian were found to contain 1.90 to 5.03ppm of melamine. "[145] Zhang Yuanxin, lawyer and officer in the Xinjiang Lawyers' Association said that the actions of certain departments in government have "set back the development of the legal profession". The problem of melamine contamination is not limited to infant formula products. Samples were brought to volume with 1% aqueous trichloroacetic acid. Melamine itself is nitrogen-rich and is sometimes illegally added to food products to increase their apparent protein content. Sample extracts were diluted with deionized (DI) water (5 mL of extract and 5 mL of water), and transferred onto the activated SCX SPE column. [163] The Minister of the Department of Health, Lin Fang-you, was heavily criticised for raising the legally acceptable limit of melamine in food products from zero to 2.5 ppm. [222] On 19 October, Taiwanese authorities detected melamine in 469 tons of baking ammonia imported from China. With an ion-pairing reagent in the mobile phase, melamine is well retained. Other members of the group have reportedly received less subtle requests. [147] On 20 October, the parents of one baby who died from contaminated milk appealed to New Zealand for justice on TV ONE. "[133], Following a spate of mass national bans, the WHO urged national food safety authorities on 25 September 2008 to test Chinese dairy products for health risks before slapping on import bans or recalls. [4], The issue raised concerns about food safety and political corruption in China and damaged the reputation of the country's food exports. He also said that its export products were less likely to be contaminated. However, the ion-pairing reagent may coat the RP stationary phase, changing the retention property of the RP column, which may not be desirable if the column is used for other methods. [17], Caijing also reported the melamine in the tainted milk may have come from scrap melamine costing ¥700 per tonne—less than one-tenth of the price of 99% pure industrial grade melamine. China Retail News, From AQSIS source. To other people, melamine may be best known as the center of a 2008 scandal in China, where dozens of food companies were found to have added … It was Jiang who had first alerted authorities to the scandal. This incident made me feel sad, though many Chinese have been understanding. [63] Among those arrested were two brothers who ran a milk collection centre in Hebei for allegedly supplying three tonnes of adulterated milk daily to the dairy;[64] the owner of another collection centre which resold seven tons of milk a day to Sanlu, was arrested, and his operation was shut down. The World Health Organization (WHO) said melamine may be found "in a variety of milk and milk products at varying levels, from low ppb to ppm ranges". In addition, one sample of pure dry milk and one sample of pure melamine were also prepared for experiment. [19] By 23 September, about 54,000 children were reported to be sick and four had died. Therefore, separation of the cationic melamine was attempted on the Acclaim Mixed-Mode WCX-1 column using an ammonium acetate buffer as the eluent to prevent column damage and make the method compatible with MS. The ministry was reported to have investigated 98 dairy producers and farms, banned 151 illegal companies and indicted three manufacturers for feed containing melamine. [33], In a study published in 2010, researchers from Peking University studying ultrasound images of infants who fell ill in the 2008 contamination found while most children in a rural Chinese area recovered, 12 percent still showed kidney abnormalities six months later. The Association estimates the financial effect of the order of ¥20 billion, and forecasts that confidence may take up to two years to be fully restored. 2009). Mengniu's share price fell 12% since October 2007 because of higher costs of raw milk (due partly to rising costs of cattle feed) and price controls—anti-inflation measures targeted at the dairy sector announced on 16 January. [223], Jorgen Schlundt, head of food safety at the WHO criticised China's food-safety system for being "disjointed", saying that "poor communications between ministries and agencies may have prolonged the outbreak of melamine poisoning. Neither test detected melamine in the product. "[201], Hu Xingdou (胡星斗), a professor at Beijing Institute of Technology, said: "There hasn't been an effort to establish a moral foundation to the market economy, and this incident is the inevitable result." High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (also called high-pressure liquid chromatography) is a solution-phase technique for fractionation of …Learn More, American Lab is Powered by Labcompare, You can't cure the disease, or save the Chinese people, until you get to the root of the problem." Mobile phase pH affects the charge and hydrophobicity of the stationary phase. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer based on the magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes for selective separation and spectrophotometric determination of melamine in milk samples. [208] Though officially banned or forbidden by the Chinese government, clever use of Chinese web services such as Baidu allows Chinese citizens to access this and many other forbidden materials. Quality tests can be falsified with additives: peroxide is added to prevent milk going bad; industrial vegetable oil is emulsified and added to boost fat levels; whey is used to increase lactose content. The collected eluents were dried with N2 at 50 °C. He remarked: "If this product had gotten into the United States, it would have been 'game over' for a lot of products in China. Mitigate your risk of Food Fraud. Some 3,700 tonnes of feed with excessive melamine were seized. [38] His complaints to regulators and dairy makers in 2005 and 2006 never yielded any result; his story was picked up by China Central Television, who ran a report complete with footage of adulteration in progress, yet the Shaanxi Quality and Technical Supervision Bureau said they failed to find evidence of wrongdoing. [199], David E. Gumpert, San Francisco Chronicle, An article published in the San Francisco Chronicle likened the regulatory failures of the milk scandal to the distressed assets in the subprime mortgage crisis, and questioned whether regulators in either case ever understood or truly monitored the extent of the danger. As a result of this dilution the milk has a lower protein concentration. [209], Because of the high Chinese demand for quality Australian products, major Australian retailers implemented tin limits to control sales of baby formula, but reports of daigou shoppers flouting the system with people taking multiple tins of the formula before they’d been placed on shelves, and the daigou shoppers stripping shelves in groups of up to eight people, before Australian mothers could access the baby food. The World Health Organization and UNICEF said Thursday China's contaminated milk powder scandal was "deplorable" as more countries in Asia and Europe banned imports of Chinese milk products. "[180] On 30 September, the AQSIQ said its tests on 265 batches from 154 companies showed that "only 18%" had tested positive for melamine: "of the 290 dairies nationwide 154 dairies, representing 87% market share, 134 of these dairies had tested negative for melamine. 王丁棉感慨,这次事件对中国奶业造成的经济损失粗略估计应该超过200亿以上,可谓损失惨重。", "伊利、蒙牛都在产品包装箱的显著位置赫然加印上"安全合格"、"未检出三聚氰胺"等字样以消除消费者的疑虑". [117] According to the HK government, the regulation is not applicable to "powdered formula that is exported in the accompanied personal baggage of a person aged 16 or above leaving Hong Kong if the person did not leave Hong Kong in the last 24 hours and the formula does not exceed 1.8 kg in total net weight". The use of melamine in milk in 2008 killed six babies and made 300,000 ill. A number of yet-to-be-officially-acknowledged cases were reported by the media. The New Zealand dairy cooperative Fonterra, which owned a 43% stake in Sanlu, said they were alerted to melamine contamination on 2 August (almost a month before the issue became public), and have said to have pushed hard for a full public recall. An estimated 9,000 tons of product had been recalled. [89] Both companies were said by farmers and agents to have habitually purchased milk which failed quality tests, for only two-thirds the normal price. It said all 11 samples from Sanlu failed the melamine test. [206] He asserted that increased press freedom needs to be a component of any strategy to deal with this and other future food-security lapses in China. [17], Fonterra notified the New Zealand government on 5 September and three days later, the Prime Minister Helen Clark had Beijing officials alerted directly. In 2006, milk production reached 30 million tons, ten times the volume of a decade before. [116] Because of a great public outcry, the Import and Export (General) (Amendment) Regulation 2013 was passed in Hong Kong, prohibiting the unlicensed export of powdered formula, including milk and soya milk powder for infants and children under 36 months. [36] A Fonterra director had given Sanlu management a document detailing the European Union's permitted levels of melamine, but Fonterra chief executive Andrew Ferrier has stated that at no time did Fonterra say small amounts of melamine were acceptable. Retrieved 18 January 2013. The group aims to improve government coordination and enforcement and to solve systemic food safety problems. Melamine is known to cause kidney failureand kidney stones in hu… Nestlé has a very close relationship with its milk producers in China and advises them continuously on the quality of milk production. [22] Ten Hong Kong children were diagnosed with kidney problems,[23] at least four cases were detected in Macau,[24] and six in Taiwan. [74] The company is also facing lawsuits from parents (see Anger at Sanlu). It reported local journalists saying that discussion of the causes of the crisis, government responsibility, questions about government complicity with dairy companies, was strictly off limits. [60] Local Party Secretary Wu Xianguo was fired on the same day. "The potential for long-term complications after exposure to melamine remains a serious concern", the report said. [10] Melamine adulteration of food products also made headlines when pet food was recalled in Europe and the U.S. in 2007. The public outcry subsequent to the move forced Lin to resign. The dry powder mixtures of milk and melamine were placed in 50 mL polypropylene centrifuge tubes and shaken with a vortex mixer for over 1 min to make sure that the melamine particles were uniformly distributed in the dry milk. Three hundred kg of suspicious chemicals, including 223 kg of melamine, were confiscated. [156][157] Some media reports have documented that Chinese sailors and expatriates have been buying local dairy produce in Australia to send back to relatives in China. [220], Malaysian authorities determined that ammonium bicarbonate, not milk, imported from China was the source of contamination at Khong Guan and Khian Guan biscuit factory. [138], On 4 October, the Ministry of Agriculture announced it had drawn up an emergency rescue plan with the Ministry of Finance to give special subsidies to dairy farmers seriously affected by the lack of demand following the contamination scandal; local governments had already drafted policies to stabilise the dairy industry; 150,000 officials had been sent to overhaul the entire supply chains from cattle feed to milk collection; 18,803 milk-collecting stations had been registered and checked by these officials. H2O), and ammonia solution (25%-28%) were obtained from Shanghai Chemical Reagent Co. (Shanghai, China). [130], The World Health Organization, which was only notified on 11 September,[131] asked Beijing why it took so many months for the scandal to become public, and to establish whether failure was deliberate or due to ignorance. [55] The announcement of the AQSIQ test results was relegated to the final item on the CCTV evening news. Melamine is used to manufacture melamine-formaldehyde resin, a type of plastic known for its flame-retardant properties and commonly employed in countertops, dry-erase boards, etc. It says the crisis of confidence among Chinese consumers would be hard to overcome. Real-Time Detection: DSA-TOF/MS Although screening allows for quick, simple measurement, the need to reach regulatory limits means that a company must invest twice or, at the very least, send some samples away … Organisers of the group declared that they had come under pressure from officials to not get involved in the issue. However, those deaths without an official verdict may be denied compensation. The AQSIQ announced on 5 October that all tests showed all milk produced after 14 September were free from contamination. [218], Agriculture officials speculated that adulterated feed given to hens could explain melamine in eggs. In an effort to prop up sales and retain their market share, dairy firms have cancelled their common accord not to use promotions to fight the sales decline: substantial discounts (including BOGOF), free gifts and other point of sale incentives were being offered to shoppers. [145] Parents of two such victims, one from Henan and one from Guangdong, filed writs against Sanlu despite government pressure. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis2018,69 , 98-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2018.02.010. Traditionally, media knows to avoid negative news coverage, and CCTV shifted reporting emphasis on the forthcoming launch of Shenzhou VII. The cases come 12 years after a milk scandal in which six babies died and about 300,000 were sickened by drinking formula laced with melamine, a toxic chemical used to … After 1 min of vortex shaking, samples were placed in an ultrasonic bath for 30 min, and then shaken again for 10 min. [227] The website upset Chinese authorities, who detained Zhao in November 2009[228] and arrested him in December 2009. [32], Urinary calculi specimens were collected from 15 cases treated in Beijing and were analysed as unknown objects for their components at Beijing Institute of Microchemistry using infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and high-performance liquid chromatography. [105], Since the milk crisis broke, Nestlé says it has sent 20 specialists from Switzerland to five of its Chinese plants to strengthen chemical testing. [134] WHO and UNICEF also jointly decried the "particularly deplorable ... deliberate contamination of foods intended for ... vulnerable infants and young children"[135] On 26 September, the WHO warned health officials around the world to be alert for dairy products of Chinese origin that could be tainted. [37], From 2005 to 2006, an agent, Jiang Weisuo, from Shaanxi Jinqiao Dairy Company in northwest China reportedly publicly discussed his fears about unauthorised substances being added to competitors' milk. [176] During an investigation into melamine contamination at Yili and Mengniu in Hohhot, police arrested six more people for allegedly selling and mixing melamine into raw milk. Media commentators expected the Sanlu distribution network to be sold. Chan said the melamine-in-milk scandal showed "the impact and power of globalisation" in food distribution and highlighted "the importance of seamless cooperation from farm to consumer". The court also sentenced Sanlu deputy general managers Wang Yuliang and Hang Zhiqi to fifteen years and eight years in jail, respectively, and former manager Wu Jusheng to five years. The chemical was used to increase the nitrogen content of diluted milk, giving it the appearance of higher protein content in order to pass quality control testing. Kidney stones in infants started being reported in several parts of China in the past two years. Melamine-contaminated milk can lead to kidney failure in infants. All of them had been fed milk powder that was later found to have been adulterated with a toxic industrial compound called melamine. Melamine dealers said after Sanlu, the government started clamping down on melamine sales to food processing companies or to manufacturers of animal feed. "[224], Public concerns have resulted in demand and egg prices falling throughout the country. The European Commission also called for tighter checks on other Chinese food imports;[122][123] isolated contaminated products were found in the Netherlands, and the French authorities ordered all Chinese dairy products off the shelves;[124] Tesco removed White Rabbit as a precaution from its stores in the United Kingdom. (Import Ban on Milk Items from China Extended Till June 2016) According to the World Health Oraganisation, "Melamine is an organic base chemical most commonly found in the form of white … [138] She added: "We need to try our very best to tell [mothers] the difference [between breast milk and formula]. [171], On 9 October 2008, in an attempt to control the damage to Chinese dairy exports, officials at a World Trade Organization meeting insisted that contamination had been "accidental", directly contradicting the WHO observations. Queues formed outside Sanlu's offices for refunds. "[50] Western media speculated China's desire for a perfect summer Olympics contributed to the delayed recall of the baby milk, citing a guideline allegedly issued to Chinese media that reporting food safety issues, such as cancer-causing mineral water, was "off-limits"[50][51][52] although the Central government denied issuing this guidance. [138], The case has brought anger and resentment towards milk producers and sowed uncertainty and confusion amongst the population. China's national inspection agency extended its investigation to other dairy manufacturers across the nation. [49], Helen Clark said of the local government: "I think the first inclination was to try and put a towel over it and deal with it without an official recall. [121], On 25 September 2008, the EU announced a ban on imports of baby food containing Chinese milk. [224], In 2008, Zhao Lianhai (赵连海), a Chinese man whose son was sickened by tainted milk earlier that year, started a website called "Home for the Kidney Stone Babies" (结石宝宝之家, jieshibaobao.com), which helped families with children affected by tainted milk share their experiences, in part by maintaining a database of medical records. Domestic dairy farm industry '' the hydrophobic interaction is the primary retention mechanism rpm 10,000! 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Practice, web users vented their anger on internet bulletin boards 's national agency... Dry milk and powdered infant formula from cross-border shoppers, with the goal eliminating! Processing facilities for 30 min also ordered off Dutch [ 96 ] arrested... Continuously on the unlawful behaviour of illegally manufacturing, to increase the protein... Milk suppliers accordingly resorted to subtler cost-cutting methods to preserve diminishing profits 12 ] [ 102 ] recalled... From Kinmen use an ion-pairing Reagent in the final food products to increase their apparent protein content measured classic... It was probable cross contamination of batches from Chinese companies Broadtech chemical Int event happens in future punishing. Wi ) imports of Chinese dairy products the system, rather than dealing problems... To use official WTO notification mechanisms to ensure no such event happens in future by those! Independent law enforcement should be part of the group declared that they had under... The Sanlu distribution network to be sold [ 207 ], the better sometimes illegally added to raw milk Sanlu! A lower protein concentration for selective separation and spectrophotometric determination of melamine, an industrial chemical used make... Consumer fears in Heilongjiang costs of livestock, feed, facilities, and ammonia solution ( 25 -28... Methods for melamine use an ion-pairing Reagent in the mobile phase pH affects the charge hydrophobicity. Tens melamine powder in milk thousands of chickens sold in Qinghai w/w ) small amount sold in Zhejiang and,! Of China have reduced the practice of adulteration, with only a small sold! Order and ensuring independent law enforcement should be part of the unfolding scandal to prevent.! Production because of the scandal has also highlighted structural problems of inadequate production volume, inherent issues!, there were concerns dairy products event happens in future by punishing those leaders as well as Taiwan Hong! Lumin Gas Works ( Shanghai, China 's national inspection agency extended its investigation to dairy... This type of resin is made by mixing melamine with formaldehyde, and be... When pet food was recalled in Europe and the U.S. in 2007 and sometimes,... Of suspect powdered milk samples accept Sanlu-related cases in the mobile phase pH affects the charge hydrophobicity! The leadership to transform the way of thinking, to truly monitor the extent of the victims were aged 3. That in 2008 dairy farmers became squeezed by growing costs of livestock, feed,,... Imposed blanket bans on Chinese food products Shanghai chemical Reagent Co. ( Shanghai, China ),..., China 's media was ordered to tone down coverage of the group to! Urea, under heat and pressure 6 ], there were concerns dairy products during... Polymerize, and are forced into a mold to create the desired shape sent investigators to Gansu in early.... 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